Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are present in all body fluids under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. They have largely been recognized for their role in mediating intercellular communication by serving as carriers of different biomolecules, including proteins, RNAs, and lipids from one cell to another. Recent studies document that tumor cells shed exosomes at considerably higher rates, and these exosomes play critical roles in several early and late events associated with tumor development and metastasis.
Given these observations, exosomes are being investigated for their exploitation in early cancer detection, monitoring of disease progression and chemotherapeutic response, and development of novel targeted therapeutics. In this chapter, we discuss, in detail, the significance of exosomes in tumor metastasis and highlight the strategies being tested to explore their translational potential.